1) Citaton Tools
RefWorks - This is the offical citation manager of the University of Winnipeg. The library provides an institutional subscription to all students, faculty, and staff, including the Write-n-Cite plugin for MS Word.
Zotero - This browser add-on will help you keep track of all the information you find, whether it's a book, article, or website.
Mendeley - Billed as an academic social network, this program will let you gather your sources, create bibliographies, and share with your colleagues.
The purpose of any citation style is to link the cited parts of your text to their sources. If something is an original idea, there is no need to cite it as it is already attributed to you the author. However, if you got the idea from one of your sources, you will need to cite it so the reader knows where it came from. You will do this by identifying it with a brief in-text citation, followed by a more complete reference in the bibliography at the end.
Most styles place in-text citations between parentheses (APA, MLA) but some may use superscript numbers with a footnote (Chicago). They will normally consist of the author’s last name and the year of publication. The purpose is to point the reader to a more complete reference in the bibliography.
Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003).
If the author’s name already appears as part of the text, only include the year.
Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples…
At the end of your paper, you will include full bibliographic references for the sources you cited in the text. This will include the author’s name, year of publication, title, source (i.e. journal title or website, etc., if applicable), volume, issue, page numbers, publisher, and location of publication. Different styles will have you format the information differently, but the purpose is always to allow your reader to locate the source you used.
Kessler, R. C. (2003). Epidemiology of women and depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 74(1), 5–13.
There are hundreds of different styles, but most undergraduates will probably only ever use three or four of them.
- The American Psychological Association (APA) has created a their Publication Manual to guide writers in the social sciences.
- The Modern Languages Association (MLA) has their version for the humanities, the Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
- The University of Chicago produces the Chicago Manual of Style which is frequently used for history papers.
- The Council for Science Editors (CSE) publishes Scientific Style and Format for use in the sciences.
The style you’re expected to use will often be listed in the assignment, but you can always check with your professor to make sure. Each of these guides are held in the library, at the reference desk.
You can download the Write-n-Cite add-on for Microsoft Word that will link your Refworks account, allowing you to easily and efficiently cite your sources. For more basic information about using Refworks, click here.
You can download the Add-on from inside your Refworks account under Tools -> Write-n-Cite. Download the current version and copy the Login Code. Follow the prompts to install.
Now start Word. You may need to make the Write-n-Cite toolbar visible by selecting it under View -> Toolbars. Login to your account by pasting the Login Code into the appropriate box. It may take a minute to download your user data, but once complete, you should no have access to all the references from your Refworks account.
Inserting Citations and a Bibliography
As you write your paper, insert citations using the drop down menu in the toolbar, either by selecting one of the commonly cited items or clicking Insert other citation…. Feel free to edit the citation, if necessary.
Once you’re finished your paper, adding the bibliography is as simple as clicking the Insert Bibliography icon in the toolbar. Again, feel free to correct any errors or omissions.